Biotechnology. Date palm
Date palm cultivar composition of Moroccan palm groves as revealed by leaf isoenzyme phenotypes. تشكلة أصناف نخل التمر بالواحات المغربية من خلال الأشباه الأنزيمية

Date production (quantity and quality) is always related to cultivar composition of the palm groves. Cultivated varieties are generally identified by their fruit characteristics (shape, weight, colour, aspect of skin, consistency, texture, etc.). All of these criteria could easily be modified by the conditions of date palm culture. Their appearance take about 6 years of culture (slow flowering and fruiting).

Based on isoenzyme electrophoresis, 28 reputed cultivars of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.), previously characterized by morphological characters, were identified using the more variable enzyme systems in the date palm: esterases (EST), endopeptidases (ENP) and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), which showed, respectively, eight, six and seven electrophoretic phenotypes in leaf material A-G).  --- Cultivars du palmier dattier au Maroc (version Français).

Useful links: -- Culture des tissus chez le palmier dattier --- vitro-clones de palmier dattier au Maroc -- Palmier dattier au Maghreb --- Sauver les palmiers au Maroc --- Palmier dattier au Maghreb. principaux stress ---- Embryogenèse somatique, mycorhization du palmier dattier --- Date palm clones. Inflorescences and offshoots -- Date palm culture in the Maghreb countries --- Scientific research on date palm (Arabic) -- Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. (Ar) -
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Morocco. Date palm cultivars

The phenotype combinations lead to an isoenzyme-based key for date palm cultivar determination. Cultivar composition of 11 date palm groves, differing in their geographical origins, were compared. Unidentified material represented about 67% (+11%) of each date palm grove with the exception of populations at M'hamid and Rissani.

Morocco. Date palm cultivars

List of date palm cultivars

BSK: Bou-Skri, BFGM: Bou-Feggouss ou Moussa, BSTB: Bou-Sthammi Blanche, BZG: Bou-Zeggar, HOA: Haoua, RLM: Race Lahmar, BSTN: Bou-Sthammi Noire, MST: Mest Ali, JHL: Jihel, OMH: Oum N'hall, AHD: Ahardane, BCD: Bou-Cerdoun, BIT: Bou-Ittob, OTK: Outoukdim, MLB: Mah L'Beid, TDMT: Tadmemt, ADM: Admou, BAZ: Bel Hazit, MKT: Mekht, SLY: Sair Layalet, AZO: Azigzao, IKL: Iklane, BFG: Bou-Feggouss, BTD: Bou-Temda, BSL: Bou-Slikhene, BIJ: Bou-Ijjou, AIB: Aissa Ioub, MJH: Mejhoul

This result confirmed the predominance of date palms derived from germinated seeds and called locally 'khalts'. The most frequent cultivars within the 11 date palm groves were Jihel and Bou-Feggouss, which exhibit good fruit qualities.

Based on the cultivar composition of each population, the factorial component analysis showed that the Marrakech date palm grove, situated at the northern side of High Atlas, was related to date palm groves of Skoura, Ait Atman, Ksar Jdid and Ksar Sifa.

Date palm populations of Zagora, M'hamid and Rissani, eachrepresented a unique type, were characterized by cultivars Bou-Sthammi Noire, Bou-Skri (and Iklane) and Bou-Feggouss, respectively. Cultivar compositions of date palm groves, determined separately on the basis of isoenzymes phenotypes and fruit qualities, were compared and discussed. For more details see Biochemical Systematics andEcology 26 (1998) , 71-82

Recherche rapide dans ce site et les sites liés de l'auteur (Fr, Ar, Eng) - بحث سريع في هذا الموقع و المواقع المرتبطة للمؤلف


sciences de la vie-Biochimie. Livre

Selected publications , communications and thesis

BAAZIZ, M. & M. AZEQOUR. 2012. Variability in inflorescence and offshoot productions of date palm clones derived from tissue culture. Conference 'New Prospects for Science and Education in the MENA region', March, 9-11, 2012, Marrakech, Mrocco. p 77. (See presentation 'date palm clones' as pdf file)

DIHAZI, A., JAITI, F., TAKTAK, W., KILANI FIKI, O., JAOUA, S., DRIOUCH, A., BAAZIZ, M., DAAYF, F. & SERGHINI, M-A. 2012. Use of two bacteria for biological control of bayoud disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L) seedlings. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 55, 7-15.

ABOHATEM, M., CHAKRAFI, F., JAITI, F., DIHAZI, A & BAAZIZ, M. 2011. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi limit incidence of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. albedinis on date palm seedlings by increasing nutrient contents, total phenols and peroxidase activities. The Open Horticulture Journal 4, 10-16.

ABOHATEM, M., ZOUINE, J. & EL HADRAMI, I. 2011. Low concentrations of BAP and high rate of subcultures improve the establishment and multiplication of somatic embryos in date palm suspension cultures by limiting oxidative browning associated with high levels of total phenols and peroxidase activities. Scientia Horticulturae 130, 344-348.

138. BAAZIZ, M. 2011. Reconstitution des palmeraies marocaines. Rôle de la recherche scientifique dans l'accompagnement du développement des oasis. Séminaire Protection et valorisation des écosystèmes oasiens pour un développement durable, Fam El Hisn, Tata, 27-28 Septembre, p. 8

بعزيز م. 2011. إعادة إعمار واحات النخيل بالمغرب. دور البحث العلمي في مواكبة تنمية الواحات. ندوة حماية و تثمين النظم البيئية بالواحات من أجل تنمية مستدامة، فم الحصن، المغرب 27-28 شتنبر. ص 8.

AZEQOUR, M., AMSSA, M. & BAAZIZ, M. 2002. Identification de la variabilité intra-clonale des vitroplants de palmier dattier issus de culture in vitro par organogenèse. Etude morphologique. C. R. Biologies 325, 947-956.
MAJOURHAT, K., BENDIAB, K., MEDRAOUI, L. & M.BAAZIZ. 2002. Diversity of leaf peroxidases in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L) as revealed in an example of marginal (seedling-derived) palm groves. Scientia Horticulturae 95, 31-38.
AZEQOUR, M.,MAJOURHAT, K. & BAAZIZ, M. 2002. Morphological variations and isoenzyme polymorphism of date palm clones from in vitro culture acclimatized and established on soil in south Morocco. Euphytica 123, 57-66.
BAAZIZ, M. 2000. Date palm culture in the Maghreb countries. Constraints and scientific researches. Date palm International Symposium. Windhoek, Namibia, 22-25 February.
MAJOURHAT, K., BENDIAB, K. & BAAZIZ, M. 1999. Etude comparative des palmiers dattiers mâles et femelles de la région de Marrakech réalisée sur la base des phénotypes isoenzymatiques des estérases, peroxydases et endopeptidases. Al Awamia 100, 41-49.
BENDIAB, K., BAAZIZ, M., MAJOURHAT, K. & MOKHLISSE, N. 1999. Apport des marqueurs biohimiques et moléculaires dansà l'étude de la structure génétique des palmeraies marocaines. In: Biotehnologies, amélioration des plantes et sécurité alimentaire. Actualités scientifiques, AUPELF-UREF, Ed. ESTEM, Paris. pp. 277-282.
Preliminary date palm cultivar composition of Moroccan palm groves as revealed by leaf isoenzyme phenotypes. Biochemical Systematic and Ecology 26, 71-82.
BAAZIZ, M., MOKHLISSE, N., BENDIAB, K., KOULLA, L., AOUAD, A.,HDADOU, H. & MAJOURHAT, K. 1996. Peroxidases as markers in date palm culture. In: Plant peroxidases, biochemistry and physiology. C. Obinger, U. Burner, R. Ebermann, C. Penel, H. Greppin Eds. University of Agriculture, Vienna and University of Geneva. pp.298-302.
Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from shoot-tip explants in Phoenix dctylifera L.. Biologia Plantarum 37,205-211.
. Somatic embryogenesis and analysis of peroxidases in Phoenix dactylifera L.. Biologia Plantarum 37, 197-203.

BAAZIZ, M., BENDIAB, K. 1994. Amélioration génétique du palmier dattier assistée par les marqueurs biochimiques et moléculaires. In: Quel avenir pour l'amélioration desplantes? AUPRL-UREF, Ed. John Libbey Eurotext, Paris. pp.413-422.
. Electrophoretic patterns of acid soluble proteins and active isoforms of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase typifying calli and somatic embryos of two reputed date palm cultivars in Morocco. Euphytica 76, 159-168.
Etude morphologique et isoenzymatique de six cultivars de palmier dattier cultivés à Marrakech et Zagora. Al Awamia 82, 151-164.
Correlation of isoenzyme polymorphism and Bayoud-disease resistance in date palm cultivars and progeny. Euphytica 65, 23-32.
BAAZIZ, M., BENDIAB, K., BRAKEZ, Z. & AIT CHITT, M. 1993.Le polymorphisme enzymatique du palmier dattier (Phoenix dactylifera L.) utilisé comme marqueur de la conformité génétique des vitro-plants.In: Le progrès génétique passe-t-il  par le repérage et l'inventaire des gènes ?. AUPELF-UREF Ed. John Libbey Eurotext, Paris. pp.155-158.
BAAZIZ, M. 1989.
The activity and preliminary characterization of peroxidases in leaves of cultivars of date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L. New Phytologist 111, 403-411.
BAAZIZ, M. & SAAIDI, M. 1988. Prelimiary identification of date palm cultivars by esterase isoenzymes and peroxidase activities. Canadian Journal of Botany 66, 89-93.


MAJOURHAT, K. 2002. Etudes des aspects quantitatif et qualitatif des peroxydases et des polyphénoloxydases du palmier dattier (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Contributionà l'étude de la diversité génétique de la palmeraie de Marrakech et des nouvelles plantations. Thèse de Doctorat en Biologie. Université Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech (Morocco).
BENDIAB, K. 1998.
Contribution à l'étude de la variabilité des hydrolases et des transférases chez le palmier dattier (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Apport à l'amélioration et à l'étude de la structure génétique des palmeraies marocaines. Doctorat d'Etat en Biologie, Université Cadi Ayyad, Marakech (Morocco).
EL HADRAMI, I. 1995.
L'embryogenèse somatique chez Phoenix dactylifera L.: quelques facteurs limitants et marqueurs biochimiques. Thèse de Doctorat d'Etat ès-Sciences. Université Cadi Ayyad, Marakech (Morocco).
BRAKEZ, Z. 1993. Oxydation des phénols chez le palmier dattier. Les peroxydases et les polyphénoloxydases co-extraites, marqueurs potentiels dans la culture de la plante et sa résistance à la maladie du Bayoud. Diplôme d'Etudes Supérieures, Université Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech (Morocco).
BENDIAB, K. 1992. Contributionà l'étude de la variabilité enzymatique et protéique chez le palmier dattier (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Apport dans l'amélioration génétique de la plante. Diplôme d'Etudes Supérieurs, Université Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech (Morocco).


MEDRAOUI, L. 2000. Contributionà l'étude de la diversité génétique du palmier dattier(Phoenix dactylifera L.) par les marqueurs biochimiques et moléculaires. Optimisation des techniques d'extraction et de séparation des protéines, des enzymes et des acides nucléiques. Diplôme d'Etudes Supérieures Approfondies. Université Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech (Morocco).

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Date palm cultivars in Morocco